Colombia: Legalizing of
By Kim Housego
The Associated Press
April 6, 2004
BOGOTA * Outside a Bogota dance club called Pipeline, a bouncer frisks a
young businessman, comes up with a small bag of cocaine, and casually
returns it to the owner. He pockets it with a grin and swaggers into the
maze of flashing lights and techno beats.
But this laid-back approach may not last much longer. A decade after
Colombia legalized possession of 20 grams of marijuana and one gram of
cocaine and heroine for private consumption, President Alvaro Uribe
wants to restore total prohibition.
The reason: The world's largest cocaine producer has become a consumer
nation with an addiction problem, according to experts, the government
and drug users themselves.
The 1994 Constitutional Court ruling for legalization was aimed at
forcing the government to find more effective methods than
law-enforcement for combating drug abuse, such as education programs,
says Sen. Carlos Gaviria, the former justice who wrote the decision.
But he complains that successive governments never invested enough time
and money in the battle.
Meanwhile, drug use has increased by 40 percent in the past 10 years,
says Dr. Camilo Uribe, a toxicologist and the president's adviser on
No comprehensive study of domestic consumption has been carried out
since 1996, but a 2001 survey by the government's National Narcotics
Office found that nine of every 100 Colombian city-dwellers aged 12 to
25 regularly use drugs.
Camilo Uribe (no relation to the president) blames legalization for part
of the increase, saying it made drugs more acceptable in a society that
traditionally frowned upon them as a source of corruption and violence.
"The court decision sent the completely wrong message, that it's OK to
do drugs," he says.
The push for criminalization marks a change from a few years ago, when
liberal legislators were making the headlines by pushing to relax the
laws even further. They sought to decriminalize drug trading, claiming
the U.S.-driven war on growers and producers was getting nowhere.
But that initiative withered for lack of public support, and Uribe's
election in 2002 buried it.
Uribe's presidency has been characterized by sternness on all fronts,
the fight against rebels, corruption in politics, and drug use. But his
attempt to criminalize drug use by referendum last year was killed by
the Constitutional Court before the vote could take place. The court
said prohibiting drug use would violate the constitutional right to free
So the president is seeking a constitutional amendment, but it's unclear
whether he can get Congress to approve the change.
Among the smartly dressed crowd at the Pipeline club, the cocaine
sniffers say recriminalization would probably push up prices from their
rock-bottom level of $3-$4 a gram, compared with $75-$100 in the United
"Right now it's cheaper than buying a beer," a 33-year-old bank
executive, who gives his name only as Guillermo, says after snorting a
line of cocaine in the restroom.
Guillermo says outlawing drug use probably wouldn't change his habits
much, except to make him more discreet. He agrees that legalization
increased drug use, but also blames the explosion of bars featuring
techno and trance music, which often prove more popular than traditional
Jennifer Cubides, chief psychologist at a juvenile detention center
where many drug peddlers are incarcerated, is desperate to see tougher
Her office at the Hogares Claret prison overlooks one of Bogota's most
notorious streets, nicknamed "El Bronx," where dealers, pimps and
prostitutes lurk in doorways and addicts loll lifelessly atop piles of
broken cardboard boxes.
To Cubides' despair, the police can't or won't do much about it. The
sale of drugs remains illegal, but suspected dealers can only be
arrested if caught with more than the legal limit.
"They know exactly what their rights are," Cubides says. "The 1994 law
was the worst thing that could have happened."
Copyright (c) 2004, South Florida Sun-Sentinel